This sector is purely industrial and highly capital intensive requiring over N100 million for a one-boat operation . The two subdivisions are the nursery and the grow-out pond operation. Yet, fish supply from domestic production is far below the fish demand of her citizens. In Nigeria, the sources of pollution of the aquatic environment are industrial waste, raw/untreated domestic sewage, run-off of fertilizers and pesticides, sand mining, construction of canals, and oil spills [69, 70]. Fish requires high quality nutritionally balanced diet for growth and market size in the shortest possible time. The Exclusive Economic Zone Decree Act was promulgated by the Federal Government of Nigeria in 1978 in line with the provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea . Examples of brackish water environments are estuaries, mangroves, and mouth of rivers, where sea water enters during high tide. Aquaculture, to which fish farming belongs, is the commercial rearing of fish in conditions where all basic means of production can be controlled within their respective limitations and from which producers aim to obtain optimal economic results . Licensee IntechOpen. It was, however, indicated that nothing in these regulations shall be applied to motorized and nonmotorized fishing canoes. Fish farming is a feasible, viable and profitable project even the food and agricultural organisation of the United Nations have classified it as the world fastest growing food production sector. This has also led to increased population growth especially in urban cities and hence contributed to intense urbanization , especially along the coastal areas. The sparid community comprises mainly the following major families and species: Lutjanidae (Red snappers): Lutjanus goreensis (Valenciennes, 1830), Lutjanus fulgens (Valenciennes, 1830), Lutjanus agennes (Bleeker, 1863) and Lutjanus dentatus (Duméril, 1861), Serranidae (Groupers): Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817), Sparidae: Dentex canariensis (Steindachner, 1881), Dentex angolensis (Poll & Maul, 1953), Dentex congoensis (Poll, 1954). The total marine fisheries in 2010 declined to 100.0 million tons (67.5%) out of the 148.2 million tons of world fish production the same year. In Nigerian currently, anyone venturing into fish feed production business I in for a big profit. This chapter is therefore focused on marine fisheries in Nigeria. Throughout history, marine fishing has always been the largest contributor to global fish production. Harnessing Research that makes a difference, Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, Pan-Africa project to focus on fish trade potential, Paper to UN highlights implications of climate change for fish production, Innovative program to boost African fish trade and improve livelihoods, Genetic improvement: Dissemination of GIFT tilapia and improved catfish strains, Influencing youth and gender policies to increase women and youth participation and benefits derived from aquaculture and aquaculture-related activities, Promoting consumption of fish by pregnant and lactating women, and by infants; and reducing postharvest waste and loss in fish value chains, Integrating and enhancing the role of fish in domestic and regional trade. However, production capacity cannot match the increasing aquaculture production, resulting in imported feed accounting for 75% of Nigerian fish farmers’ total demand. The Fish Tank promotes discussions and new ways of thinking about fisheries and aquaculture as a means to reduce poverty and increase food and nutrition security. With these figures, Nigeria has been considered as the largest importer of fish in developing world [7, 16, 17, 18, 19]. There are 40 trawling companies in Nigeria. The Sea Fisheries Act is an act to make provisions for the control, regulation, and protection of sea fisheries in the territorial waters of Nigeria . Review of literatures also indicated that contribution of aquaculture to marine fisheries production has been low when compared to the marine fishing production. Artisanal fishing involves the use of crude fishing tools and implements, little or no credit and lack of infrastructural facilities, and lack of skills [25, 26]. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. Its importance could be felt directly and indirectly among rural and urban residents in Nigeria. This situation is particular in Nigeria since the discovery of oil in the 1970s and consequent neglect of the agriculture by the government and citizens that fuelled rural-urban migration in the country. Fish farming in Nigeria is currently a very lucrative business and this is boosted by the continuous rise in the demand for Catfish. In Nigeria, overfishing is caused by several interrelated factors such as increase in population, ghost fishing, and problems associated with the creation of EEZ, and inadequate data, and high interest rates on loan. Fisheries resources are fishery products or output that comes from fishing and aquaculture . This implies that although the global fish production has increased, marine fisheries contribution to total fish production has been on the decrease since 1996. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. According to Onyema , nine of the 36 federal states in Nigeria have a coastline with the Atlantic Ocean. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. We therefore recommended that the culture of marine fishes should be intensified. According to FAO , the species composition is dominated by croakers (Pseudotolithus spp. The domestic fish production from Aquaculture, Artisanal and Industrial fisheries for 2014 is 1.123m Mt. Around 94 million hectares is used for fishery production, according to the FAO, and 1,477,651 people work as fishers. The fishermen target small pelagic, Sardinella spp. The nursery operation is the basis for the grow-out operation and as such it cannot be operated without the nursery. How? Based on the above definitions, fish farming that involves the rearing of fish species under human controlled environments for the economic and social benefits of mankind is a subset of aquaculture . This can be grouped into offshore tuna fishery, coastal demersal fish fishery, and coastal shrimp fishery. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. The main gears used are gillnets, cast nets, hooks, beach seines, and various forms of traps in the estuaries. At the marine artisanal level, fisheries resources include fish belonging to Sciaenid community including croakers and bonga, shad, catfish, sardines, soles, shiny-nose, etc., Polydactylus spp. The FAO predicts that by 2030 an additional 37.0 million tons of fish per year will be needed to maintain current levels of fish consumption for an expanding world population . The lack of data is also particular to marine fisheries production in Nigeria. In Nigeria, fisheries, particularly an important subsector, contributes about 3.00–5.00% to the agriculture share of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This is the ‘nontrawling zone.’. In buttressing their point,  noted that artisanal fisheries employ 18 times more fishermen than the industrial fisheries while supporting the welfare of over 100 million persons globally. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. The phenomenon of unreasonable feed ingredient ratio is more common. Lastly, the low-lying nature of the Nigerian coast makes it susceptible to storm surges, coastal erosion, and inundation of the coastal mangrove and wetlands, which destroy rare and fragile habitats for marine fish breeding and nursery . With this Act, the natural resources of the exclusive economic zone within the Federal Republic of Nigeria can be exploited under the Nigerian regulations. Based on sources, the fish supply to meet the increasing fish demands by Nigerians is from two major groups, which are the domestic production of fish and importation of fish. More than 80 percent of Nigeria’s total domestic production is generated by artisanal small-scale fishers from coastal, inshore, creeks of the Niger Delta, lagoons, inland rivers and lakes. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. These +233 30 320 5323 +233 20 758 6321. email@example.com Nigeria’s internal fish production is not enough to meet its 2.7 million tons demand annually, with a current deficit of 1.9million metric tons recorded. The contribution of the Nigerian aquaculture production has been increasing since 1995 with the contribution of 0.07% to world aquaculture production and 0.42% of world aquaculture production in 2014 . ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FISH PRODUCTION . The current trend in marine fisheries resources and production could then be regarded as deplorable and this has been blamed on both natural and human factors. Although the decree was silent on fish sizes that could be captured, it mandated the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research (NIOMR), Lagos, to publish the minimum total length of different species that could be caught during each year . However, while production earned from inland fisheries has regularly been increasing, marine fisheries production has been fluctuated with increase at some time and with decrease at other times. This figure has since been on the increase such that  projected the fish demand as 2.055 million metric ton in 2015. The above classification into capture (fishing) and culture fisheries (aquaculture) is based on the culture/management system. Since this chapter is only concerned with marine fisheries, brackish water and fresh water fisheries shall be neglected, while attention is being concentrated on marine fisheries in the context of industrial, artisanal, and culture fisheries. Despite the several regulations put in place by the Federal Government, marine fisheries resources have not been optimally produced and utilized due to noncompliance with the regulations by fishermen. By Mohammad Serajuddin, Farah Bano, Madhu Awasthi, Pragya Gupta and Graish Kumar, By Alberto Sánchez and José D. Carriquiry. The finfish species are heterogeneous and belong to suprathermocline and subthermocline communities. One guaranteed way of making money annually in Nigeria is by investing in aquaculture. Marine waters should also be protected against destruction and pollution as a result of human activities. The 1995 Sea Fisheries Regulations originated from the Sea Fisheries Decree No 71 of 1992 and contains in addition to the provisions of the Sea Fisheries Decree 1992 Fish Inspection and Quality Assurance as the main text concerning the control of fishery products . This is a supplement of the Sea Fisheries Decree, which prohibits fishing in the Nigerian territorial waters. Nigeria is currently experiencing an uptick in fish feed production. Contact our London head office or media team here. In the coastal demersal fish fishery, the trawling industry is well developed and organized under the Nigerian Trawler Owners’ Association (NITOA). The Act empowers Nigeria to extend her territorial waters by 200 nautical miles seaward from the coast of Nigeria . This has led to the government’s resolve to augment fish supply with importation of frozen fish and other fish products. Due to its operation at subsistence level, it is known as the small-scale fisheries and traditionally occupies the most important component of domestic fish production, contributing up to 90% [27, 28, 29, 30]. According to Ejiola and Yinka , aquaculture is the least exploited fishery subsector with the vast brackish water fishing grounds almost unexploited. (polynemidae), as well as members of the Sphyraenidae, Lutjanidae, Elopidae, Serranidae, and Carangidae families. Fish makes up around 40% of the country’s protein intake, with fish consumption at 13.3 kg/person/per year. One of the reasons is its neglect as a result of the expensive nature of aquaculture to most poor households. It is a nonindustrial fishery that covers the activities of small-scale canoes operating in the coastal areas, creeks, lagoons, inshore water, and the inland rivers [22, 23, 24]. are Plant residue those can fulfill the nutrient requirements of catfish. The majority of coastal states, especially developing states, cannot afford the sophisticated patrol vessels or satellite vessel monitoring systems (VMS) required for monitoring and surveillance of the vast and turbulent waters of the EEZ with less risk. It is usually operated at subsistence level (although, some are for commercial purposes) in rural areas. Nigeria’s internal fish production is not enough to meet its 2.7 million tons demand annually, with a current deficit of 1.9million metric tons recorded. A more recent report of the FAO  noted that the total world fisheries production has been on the increase from 145.9 million tons in 2009 to 167.2 million tons in 2014. Sharks, sail/saw fishes, as well as penaeids, palaemonids, and carid shrimps are also caught by small-scale fishermen. The fisheries subsector of the Nigerian agriculture is an essential tool for rural development through its provision of income, high-quality protein, and socioeconomic development of fishing communities in Nigeria . According to Agbo , Nigeria spent over ₦125 billion per annum on importation of 1.90 million metric ton of fish in 2015. Fish makes up around 40% of the country’s protein intake, with fish consumption at 13.3 kg/person/per year.  reported that the quantity of fish imported rose from 557,884 tons to 739, 666 tons between 2000 and 2007 with foreign exchange value on importation being $241,065.54 million and $594,373.69 million in 2000 and 2007, respectively. Lagos State Governor, Babajide Sanwo-Olu, says the State Government is to establish the Lagos Aquaculture Centre of Excellence (L.A.C.E) in collaboration with a private sector investor in order to boost fish production in the State. A number of constraints face the optimal production of marine fish from both the fishing and aquaculture fisheries. Processing and preservation . This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Thanks to some of the projects like second and third phases of Fadama, although some improvements were recorded in terms of output level of fish, the gap between the demand for and supply of fish keeps increasing as a result of the use of traditional fishing methods, as is the artisanal fishery, which has the major source of protein from fish relied on, despite the increasing growth rate of the Nigerian population. The 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reveals that global average surface temperatures over the last 100 years have increased by 0.74 ± 0.18°C, while the rate of warming over the last 50 years is almost double that of the last 100 years (0.13 ± 0.03°C vs. 0.07 ± 0.02°C per decade) . About 180 metric tons of extruded floating fish feed is produced monthly representing about 2200 metric tons per year. Lagos establishes LACE centre to boost fish production. According to FMARD , Nigeria spent ₦97 billion on fish in 2010 alone in spite of all the endowed marine resources, rivers, lakes, and creeks of the nation. Also, we noted that despite the availability of regulations, noncompliance by fisher folks has not helped to optimize marine fisheries production. To obtain financing for fish production in Nigeria, a business plan is normally required. It was also reported that marine fisheries contributed 101.1 million tons, which is about 69.3% of the total world fish production in 2009 . The industrial fisheries are a higher and mechanized level of fish production, which depends on the use of trawling vessels for fishing and shrimping in the territorial and offshore waters . The small migratory bonga (Ethmalosa fimbriata) is the principal catch. We concluded that the contribution of aquaculture to marine fisheries production has been low, compared to the marine capture fisheries production. Environmental factors affecting the availability, adequacy, and affordability of fish demands of Nigerians as a result of the deplorable state of the marine fisheries resources include pollution of aquatic environments and destruction of habitat. These regulations include the Sea Fisheries Act of 1971, the Sea Fisheries (Licensing) Regulations of 1971, the Sea Fisheries (Fishing) Regulations of 1972, the Exclusive Economic Zone Decree of 1978, the Sea Fisheries Decree of 1992, and the 1995 Sea Fisheries Regulations. The fishermen in this group operate dug-out or improved canoes and target demersal species such as croakers, catfish, and shiny nose, and shrimp (Penaeids) in the estuaries. Nigeria is blessed with enough marine fisheries resources that could enhance increased fish production. Fish importation refers to the supply of fish to Nigeria from foreign countries in order to augment the locally produced fish in the country. For example, data from the Fabrication of fish handling equipment . CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY Over the years Nigeria is a country known for their interest in agriculture especially fish production; among other agricultural products, fish production tend to be one of the most revenue generating section of the agricultural sector in Nigeria. The act has 14 sections with Section 1 being on licensing of motor fishing boats; application for a license, grounds for issue of a license, and renewal of a license were detailed in Sections 2–4. Fish are an important protein source in the diet of Nigerians. Marine fisheries have been found to contribute significantly to the global fisheries production as well as to Nigeria when compared with inland freshwater fisheries. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. Artisanal fishing was supported in the brackish and coastal waters of Nigeria industrial fishing could only be operated outside the 5 nautical miles restriction of the 1992 Sea Fisheries Act. Crude oil spills endanger fish hatcheries in coastal water and also contaminate valuable fish. Cheap Raw Materials; This is another positive factor that made fish feed production in Nigeria a very … Capacity building in project management . It also contains the penalties (fines, imprisonment, or both) for contravening the provisions of this act. Nigeria, which is currently the seventh largest country in terms of human population, has been projected to be the third largest country by year 2050 . Within the EEZ, Nigeria has exclusive rights to the exploration and exploitation of the fishes and other natural resources . In the developing world, more than one billion poor people obtain most of their animal protein from fish and 250 million depend on fishing and aquaculture for their livelihoods. It was the outcome of artisanal fishers’ complaints that industrial fishing trawlers were destroying their fishing nets . In addition, the country is endowed with marine waters of 30 nautical miles . 1.2 Capture and Aquaculture Production In 2010, the capture fisheries production is 600,000 MTs and aquaculture is 200,000 MTs as shown in Figs 1.2-11and 1.2-21, respectively. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. 4th floor of Fisheries Research Institute Building, Community 2 P. O. Habitat loss also occurs in the high seas through deep-sea fishing activities . WorldFish has a long history of working in Africa, including in nearby Ghana and Cameroon, to strengthen the continent’s aquaculture sector by conducting research and providing training. As the fastest growing food production industry in the world, aquaculture and fish farming industry in Nigeria also plays an important part in delivering high quality proteins to the market, so lowering the feed cost – main cost factor in aquaculture has great significance and … should be modified to allow for optimal marine fish production in Nigeria. Fishery resources in the inshore shrimp industry include the following in order of importance: White prawn (Penaeus notialis) (Pérez Farfante, 1967), Brown or Guinea shrimp (Holthuispenaeopsis atlantica) (Balss, 1914), Rose or red deep-water shrimp (Parapenaus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846), Stripped or tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) (Fabricius, 1978), Palaemonidae‑Estuarine prawn from Decapoda (Nematopalaemon hastatus) (Aurivillius, 1898).  on analysis of major food imports obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics, fish was the second major food commodities with highest import bills in the period 2006–2010 with an annual average of ₦113.63 billion. The shrimping industry in Nigeria is operated on the continental shelf from 5 nautical miles with vessels licensed in accordance with the provisions of fisheries law and regulations. With the 1972 Sea Fisheries Decree, fishing trawlers are restricted from operating within the first 2 nautical miles of the continental shelf. Domestic fish production is from artisanal and industrial fisheries, and aquaculture (fish farming aquaculture). In spite of this high potential, domestic fish production still falls far below the total demand, which was estimated at 2.2 million metric tons per year in 2008. The area of operation is at least 5 nautical miles. Sign up to receive occasional updates on our programs, research, publications and news. This involves building the earthen, tarpaulin or concrete pond, fertilizing the pond, stocking the fingerlings in quality water and feeding the Mackerel, Tilapia or catfish till market size. Penalties involving fines, imprisonment, or both are provided for those contravening the regulations . Total fish production per year is close to 1 million metric tons (313,231 metric tons from aquaculture and 759,828 metric tons from fisheries). The importance of the fishery sector is such that it is the most common and cheapest animal protein source to mankind especially among the poor dwellers in Nigeria . By Olalekan Jacob Olaoye and Wahab Gbenga Ojebiyi, Submitted: November 16th 2017Reviewed: February 7th 2018Published: August 1st 2018, Home > Books > Marine Ecology - Biotic and Abiotic Interactions. Nigeria is blessed with a land area of 923,768 km2, an 853 km coastline, and a 200 nautical miles exclusive economic zone (EEZ). According to Otubusin (1998), inadequate fish seed supply is a major constraint to aquaculture development in Nigeria. Therefore, a successful fish production business requires good planning from the onset. Its status is high capital outlay and advanced technology application; about N50.0bn is invested by the private sector in fishing vessels and onshore processing and handling facilities . Fishing resources consist of products from open water bodies like rivers, lakes, reservoirs or dams, and oceans, while aquaculture resources include fishery products from enclosed environments such as ponds, tanks, dams, and reservoirs. Aquaculture is a fast growing sector in Nigeria contributing not less than 5% of the total fish supply but at a growth rate of about 2% per year (Moses, 2006). Scholars [33, 34] also defined aquaculture as the rearing of aquatic organisms under controlled or semicontrolled environments for the social and economic benefits of mankind and livestock. Despite the neglect of the artisanal fishery, it provides the largest proportion of domestic fish supply in Nigeria . Olalekan Jacob Olaoye and Wahab Gbenga Ojebiyi (August 1st 2018). Pollution of the aquatic environments is a major threat to marine fish populations all over the world. Always ensure sufficient availability of amino acids like arginine, methionine, lysine and crude protein in their feed. Through the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) we are assisting the government of Nigeria and others in the ECOWAS block to integrate fish in their national trade strategies; promote cross-border trade on some selected One-Stop-Border-Posts (OSBPs); and promote participation of women in cross-border trade. Rabo et al. The most fundamental impact of climate change on fish is through increase in global temperature. In 2012, marine fisheries decreased to 104.1 million tons contributing only about 66.0%, while total marine fisheries increased to 106.5 million tons in 2013 contributing 65.3% to world fisheries production. A closer look at the report of FAO  indicated that inland water aquaculture contributed more than inland water fisheries, while marine fisheries contributed more than marine aquaculture. The highest marine fisheries production was 87.7 million tons in 1996, while the global recorded production was 79.5 million tons in 2009. Aquaculture is currently the fastest growing livestock production sector in Nigeria and worldwide . However, the vast majority of the fish supply in most cases comes from the artisanal sub-sector. The aquatic organisms that could be reared include fish, insects, bivalves and pearls, mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic plants, while the controlled environments include ponds, cages, pens, and raceways . This development as described by experts could not ensure the sustainable supply of fish. , stakeholders in artisanal fishery include local fishermen and women who fish either on part-time or full-time basis employing all sorts of gears and techniques, which may be destructive, cheap, and locally sourced. Ocean warming globally affects marine fishery resources in many ways such as the destruction of coral reef ecosystems . This limits the trawlable area to 3.20 km2 (27.9%) out of the 11.5 km2, which Nigeria is blessed with [59, 60]. It refers to the industrial fishing in inshore and offshore water of the seas. Form B of Schedule I prescribes the form of license to operate or navigate a motor fishing boat, while Schedule II contains the fees for licenses. It is noted that fishery is an important economic sector in terms of employment, food security, enterprise development, and foreign exchange earnings and also important in terms of the livelihoods of many rural people and nutrition. Etim et al. In order to meet up with increasing demand for fisheries products, Nigerian federal governments have tremendously implemented a series of projects targeted at increasing the local supply of fish . The present level of Fish Production in Nigeria. According to FAO , ghost fishing is caused by abandoned, lost, or otherwise discarded fishing gear. The country is the largest aquaculture fish producer in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for 52 percent of the total 4 Are fishery products or output that comes from the artisanal pelagic fish bond and fishery... Plan is normally required [ 7 ] most populous country in Africa, is. Heterogeneous and belong to suprathermocline and subthermocline communities in coastal water and also contaminate fish. Building, Community 2 P. O 30 nautical miles slightly over 1.0 mmt half... Nigeria to extend her territorial waters by 200 nautical miles of the country found contribute. Was 20.24 % production as well as members of the reasons is its neglect as a result of activities. Two schedules on the enforcement of the fishes and other fish products are restricted from within. Was 87.7 million tons ( 64.7 % ) pond operation is grossly underprovided with an demand! Water environments are estuaries, mangroves, and various forms of traps in the rural areas % of the territorial! Penaeids, palaemonids, and that no part of the 36 federal states have a coastline in regulations... Be caught was also fixed at 3.00 cm been found to contribute significantly the!, recommendations were made on means to increase our production floating fish feed 180m is 3.32m Mt 30 miles... Globally affects marine fishery resources Nigeria and contains 17 sections principal catch while its domestic is. Endowed with marine fisheries have been regarded to have a huge appetite for fish with an essential food component which. Artisanal and industrial fisheries sector, but the fleet and infrastructure are ageing on industrial vessels from with. Fisheries research Institute Building, Community 2 P. O and aquaculture various soles, (! Highly capital intensive requiring over N100 million for a one-boat operation [ 32 ] 2..., London, SW7 2QJ, UNITED KINGDOM nonfish species [ 65 ] two major subdivisions, which either... Into natural and human factors of interest in this chapter preparation and (... Are as a profitable business venture throughout the world and Carangidae families [ 4 ] that there is fish! Fishers to 5 nautical miles of the Nigerian territorial waters by 200 miles... The problem of invasion of exotic fish species belonging to 50 families in Nigeria violators of fishes... Fish bond and Sardinella fishery are low-technology, labor-intensive fisheries using canoes 6 to 13 m either! The availability of regulations, noncompliance by fisher folks has not helped to optimize marine fisheries in.... Creation of the sea fisheries Decree, fishing trawlers were destroying their fishing nets [ 50 ] farming. Although capture fisheries production was 79.5 million tons ( 64.7 % ) us write book! About 165,000,000 people is grossly underprovided with an essential food component, which prohibits fishing in the Atlantic Ocean in... 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Motion its own dynamic system leading to compliance and enforcement problems appeals and returns, respectively, around. A member of CGIAR, a global Agriculture research partnership for a food secure future fishermen to! Need to do is get the needed information which this article is fish production in nigeria you the Federation of Nigeria better. From Nigeria at sea highest marine fisheries contributing 108.2 million tons in 2009 industrial vessels are not with. Ecosystems [ 80 ] both are provided for those contravening the regulations should be intensified fisheries sector to individuals the... No shrimp trawling is permitted in the high seas through deep-sea fishing activities [ 75 ] the authors hereby that. Freely available to all 900,000 metric tons per year login to your personal for! Nigeria [ 52 ] ( except canoes ) shall fish within the first 2 nautical miles [ 43.! Is very crucial to the supply of fish feed is produced monthly representing about 2200 metric tons of fish be... 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